As you read the passage below, consider how Eric Betz uses
- evidence, such as facts or examples, to support claims.
- reasoning to develop ideas and to connect claims and evidence.
- stylistic or persuasive elements, such as word choice or appeals to emotion, to add power to the ideas expressed.
Adapted from Eric Betz, “Let There Be (Less) Light.” ©2015 by Los Angeles Times. Originally published August 16, 2015.
1.Looking out across Los Angeles from Mt. Wilson Observatory at night, the hills and mountains look like islands in a sea of light. It was here that Edwin Hubble first proved our universe was expanding at a rapid pace. From this vantage point you can still make out the major constellations, but drive into the light bubble and suddenly the cosmos feels awfully far away. The city shines so bright it blocks out the stars, a phenomenon known as “skyglow.”
2.Light seeps into the sky from stadiums, malls, parking lots, offices and billboards. But streetlights, with their harsh bulbs, are the worst offenders.
3.We intuitively assume that more lights mean less crime. Indeed, police are often taught that, second to more cops, good lighting is the best crime deterrent.
4.Yet decades of research show there’s no scientific reason to believe that darker streets are inherently more dangerous. And, increasingly, researchers are finding that excess light is toxic for both humans and wildlife.
5.In one study, published July 28 in the Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, researchers examined 14 years of data from 62 local authorities across England and Wales, hunting for crime and collision trends among agencies that reduced their lighting.
6.But the health researchers found no link between collisions and lighting despite studying about 14,500 miles of roadways where streetlights were dimmed, lighted for only part of the night or shut off entirely. They also examined lighting’s effect on crime and similarly found no increase in burglary, auto theft, robbery, violence or sexual assault in areas where lighting policy had changed.
7.The scientists published a companion study based on surveys of 520 people living in darkened areas. Many residents said they didn’t even notice the dimming, let alone feel threatened by an uptick in crime.
8.Other studies back up these results. In 1998, for example, Chicago tried to fight crime with a three-phase plan that included upgrading 175,000 streetlights, as well as lights in transit stations and alleys around the city. The city kept experimental control areas unchanged and found that crime consistently increased in both the well-lighted and the control areas. Illinois criminal justice officials concluded that strolling down a dark alley was no more dangerous than doing so in a well-lighted one.
9.All this should make taxpayers uneasy. Last week, the Cities at Night project released a report estimating that the European Union alone spends about $7 billion annually to power streetlights.
10.But there’s something much more troubling than wasted money about losing the night. A growing body of biological research suggests that nighttime lighting messes with the circadian rhythms of humans and other animals, wreaking havoc on everything from sleep patterns to DNA repair.
11.Studies have shown that nighttime light exposure is a risk factor for some cancers, diabetes, heart disease and obesity. As scientists continue to gather evidence, the American Medical Assn. has already recommended that cities reduce light pollution and that people avoid staring at electronic screens after dark.
12.LEDs are of particular concern. Cities around the world are converting from traditional yellow sodium-vapor lamps, which cast their light in a narrow range, to broad-spectrum LED streetlights. Los Angeles has installed 165,000 LEDs in recent years, slashing streetlight energy use by 60% and netting $8 million in energy savings annually.
13.The problem is that these bright lamps increase skyglow by emitting more blue light than the older technology. They also could have unintended effects on wildlife. Artificial lights can disrupt navigation, mating and feeding among the many nocturnal animals that share our cities.
14.A University of Bristol study published this month showed that certain moths can’t perform evasive maneuvers against predatory bats under LEDs. And recent research in New Zealand shows some insects are 48% more attracted to the new LEDs than they were to the old-fashioned lights. The researchers worry that widespread use of the new technology will create a “white-light night” that intensifies light pollution’s pressure on ecosystems.
15.The psychological loss is less measurable.
16.What happens when people grow up without stars? Do they lose their connection to the cosmos that our ancestors tracked so carefully, night after night?
Eric Betz is an editor for Astronomy magazine.
Write an essay in which you explain how Eric Betz builds an argument to persuade his audience that cities must reduce light pollution. In your essay, analyze how Betz uses one or more of the features listed in the box above(or features of your own choice) to strengthen the logic and persuasiveness of his argument. Be sure that your analysis focuses on the most relevant features of the passage. Your essay should not explain whether you agree with Betz's claims, but rather explain how Betz builds an argument to persuade his audience.